(Chronology of the Westlands)

The First Age ended with the Great Battle, in which the Host of Valinor broke Thangorodrim50 and overthrew Morgoth. Then most of the Noldor returned into the Far West51 and dwelt in Eressea within sight of Valinor; and many of the Sindar went over Sea also.

The Second Age ended with the first overthrow of Sauron, servant of Morgoth, and the taking of the One Ring.

The Third Age came to its end in the War of the Ring; but the Fourth Age was not held to have begun until Master Elrond departed, and the time was come for the dominion of Men and the decline of all other 'speaking-peoples' in Middle-earth.52

In the Fourth Age the earlier ages were often called the Elder Days; but that name was properly given only to the days before the casting out of Morgoth. The histories of that time are not recorded here.
The Second Age

These were the dark years for Men of Middle-earth, but the years of the glory of NUmenor. Of events in Middle-earth the records are few and brief, and their dates are often uncertain.

In the beginning of this age many of the High Elves still remained. Most of these dwelt in Lindon west of the Ered Luin; but before the building of the Barad-dûr many of the Sindar passed eastward, and some established realms in the forests far away, where their people were mostly Silvan Elves. Thranduil, king in the north of Greenwood the Great, was one of these. In Lindon north of the Lune dwelt Gil-galad, last heir of the kings of the Noldor in exile. He was acknowledged as High King of the Elves of the West. In Lindon south of the Lune dwelt for a time Celeborn, kinsman of Thingol; his wife was Galadriel, greatest of Elven women. She was sister of Finrod Felagund, Friend-of-Men, once king of Nargothrond, who gave his life to save Beren son of Barahir.

Later some of the Noldor went to Eregion, upon the west of the Misty Mountains, and near to the West-gate of Moria. This they did because they learned that mithril had been discovered in Moria.53 The Noldor were great craftsmen and less unfriendly to the Dwarves than the Sindar; but the friendship that grew up between the people of Durin and the Elven-smiths of Eregion was the closest that there has ever been between the two races. Celebrimbor was lord of Eregion and the greatest of their craftsmen; he was descended from Feanor.

1. Foundation of the Grey Havens, and of Lindon.

32. The Edain reach NUmenor.

c. 40. Many Dwarves leaving their old cities in Ered Luin go to Moria and swell its numbers.

442. Death of Elros Tar-Minyatur.

c. 500. Sauron begins to stir again in Middle-earth.

548. Birth in NUmenor of Silmarien.

600. The first ships of the NUmenoreans appear off the coasts.

750. Eregion founded by the Noldor.

c. 1000. Sauron, alarmed by the growing power of the NUmenoreans, chooses Mordor as a land to make into a stronghold. He begins the building of Barad-dûr.

1075. Tar-Ancalime becomes the first Ruling Queen of NUmenor.

1200. Sauron endeavours to seduce the Eldar. Gil-galad refuses to treat with him; but the smiths of Eregion are won over. The NUmenoreans begin to make permanent havens.

c. 1500. The Elven-smiths instructed by Sauron reach the height of their skill. They begin the forging of the Rings of Power.

c. 1590. The Three Rings are completed in Eregion.

c. 1600. Sauron forges the One Ring in Orodruin. He completes the Barad-dûr. Celebrimbor perceives the designs of Sauron.

1693. War of the Elves and Sauron begins. The Three Rings are hidden.

1695. Sauron's forces invade Eriador. Gil-galad sends Elrond to Eregion.

1697. Eregion laid waste. Death of Celebrimbor. The gates of Moria are shut. Elrond retreats with remnant of the Noldor and founds the refuge of Imladris.

1699. Sauron overruns Eriador.

1700. Tar-Minastir sends a great navy from NUmenor to Lindon. Sauron is defeated.

1701. Sauron is driven out of Eriador. The Westlands have peace for a long while.

c. 1800. From about this time onward the NUmenoreans begin to establish dominions on the coasts. Sauron extends his power eastwards. The shadow falls on NUmenor.

2251. Tar-Atanamir takes the sceptre. Rebellion and division of the NUmenoreans begins. About this time the Nazgûl or Ringwraiths, slaves of the Nine Rings, first appear.

2280. Umbar is made into a great fortress of NUmenor.

2350. Pelargir is built. It becomes the chief haven of the Faithful NUmenoreans.

2899. Ar-Adûnakhôr takes the sceptre.

3175. Repentance of Tar-Palantir. Civil war in NUmenor.

3255. Ar-Pharazôn the Golden seizes the sceptre.

3261. Ar-Pharazôn sets sail and lands at Umbar.

3262. Sauron is taken as prisoner to NUmenor; 3262-3310 Sauron seduces the King and corrupts the NUmenoreans.

3310. Ar-Pharazôn begins the building of the Great Armament.

3319. Ar-Pharazôn assails Valinor. Downfall of NUmenor. Elendil and his sons escape.

3320. Foundations of the Realms in Exile: Arnor and Gondor. The Stones are divided (II, 54). Sauron returns to Mordor.

3429. Sauron attacks Gondor, takes Minas Ithil and burns the White Tree. Isildur escapes down Anduin and goes to Elendil in the North. Anarion defends Minas Anor and Osgiliath.

3430. The Last Alliance of Elves and Men is formed.

3431. Gil-galad and Elendil march east to Imladris.

3434. The host of the Alliance crosses the Misty Mountains. Battle of Dagorlad and defeat of Sauron. Siege of Barad-dûr begins.

3440. Anarion slain.

3441. Sauron overthrown by Elendil and Gil-galad, who perish. Isildur takes the One Ring. Sauron passes away and the Ringwraiths go into the shadows. The Second Age ends.

The Third Age

These were the fading years of the Eldar. For long they were at peace wielding the Three Rings while Sauron slept and the One Ring was lost; but they attempted nothing new, living in memory of the past. The Dwarves hid themselves in deep places, guarding their hoards; but when evil began to stir again and dragons reappeared, one by one their ancient treasures were plundered, and they became a wandering people. Moria for long remained secure, but its numbers dwindled until many of its vast mansions became dark and empty. The wisdom and the life-span of the NUmenoreans also waned as they became mingled with lesser Men.

When maybe a thousand years had passed, and the first shadow had fallen on Greenwood the Great, the Istari or Wizards appeared in Middle-earth. It was afterwards said that they came out of the Far West and were messengers sent to contest the power of Sauron, and to unite all those who had the will to resist him; but they were forbidden to match his power with power, or to seek to dominate Elves or Men by force and fear.

They came therefore in the shape of Men, though they were never young and aged only slowly, and they had many powers of mind and hand. They revealed their true names to few,54 but used such names as were given to them. The two highest of this order (of whom it is said there were five) were called by the Eldar Curunir, 'the Man of Skill', and Mithrandir, 'the Grey Pilgrim', but by Men in the North Saruman and Gandalf. Curunir journeyed often into the East, but dwelt at last in Isengard. Mithrandir was closest in friendship with the Eldar, and wandered mostly in the West, and never made for himself any lasting abode.

Throughout the Third Age the guardianship of the Three Rings was known only to those who possessed them. But at the end it became known that they had been held at first by the three greatest of the Eldar: Gil-galad, Galadriel and Cirdan. Gil-galad before he died gave his ring to Elrond; Cirdan later surrendered his to Mithrandir. For Cirdan saw further and deeper than any other in Middle-earth, and he welcomed Mithrandir at the Grey Havens, knowing whence he came and whither he would return.

'Take this ring, Master,' he said, 'for your labours will be heavy; but it will support you in the weariness that you have taken upon yourself. For this is the Ring of Fire, and with it you may rekindle hearts in a world that grows chill. But as for me, my heart is with the Sea, and I will dwell by the grey shores until the last ship sails. I will await you.'

2. Isildur plants a seedling of the White Tree in Minas Anor. He delivers the South-kingdom to Meneldil. Disaster of the Gladden Fields; Isildur and his three elder sons are slain.

3. Ohtar brings the shards of Narsil to Imladris.

10. Valandil becomes King of Arnor.

109. Elrond weds Celebrian, daughter of Celeborn.

130. Birth of Elladan and Elrohir, sons of Elrond.

241. Birth of Arwen Undomiel.

420. King Ostoher rebuilds Minas Anor.

490. First invasion of Easterlings.

500. Romendacil I defeats the Easterlings.

541. Romendacil slain in battle.

830. Falastur begins the line of Ship-kings of Gondor.

861. Death of Eärendur, and division of Arnor.

933. King Eärnil I takes Umbar, which becomes a fortress of Gondor.

936. Eärnil lost at sea.

1015. King Ciryandil slain in the siege of Umbar.

1050. Hyarmendacil conquers the Harad. Gondor reaches the height of its power. About this time a shadow falls on Greenwood, and men begin to call it Mirkwood. The Periannath are first mentioned in records, with the coming of the Harfoots to Eriador.

c. 1100. The Wise (the Istari and the chief Eldar) discover that an evil power has made a stronghold at Dol Guldur. It is thought to be one of the Nazgûl.

1149. Reign of Atanatar Alcarin begins.

c. 1150. The Fallohides enter Eriador. The Stoors come over the Redhorn Pass and move to the Angle, or to Dunland.

c. 1300. Evil things begin to multiply again. Orcs increase in the Misty Mountains and attack the Dwarves. The Nazgûl reappear. The chief of these comes north to Angmar. The Periannath migrate westward; many settle at Bree.

1356. King Argeleb I slain in battle with Rhudaur. About this time the Stoors leave the Angle, and some return to Wilderland.

1409. The Witch-king of Angmar invades Arnor. King Arvaleg I slain. Fornost and Tyrn Gorthad are defended. The Tower of Amon Sûl destroyed.

1432. King Valacar of Gondor dies, and the civil war of the Kin-strife begins.

1437. Burning of Osgiliath and loss of the palantir. Eldacar flees to Rhovanion; his son Ornendil is murdered.

1447. Eldacar returns and drives out the usurper Castamir. Battle of the Crossings of Erui. Siege of Pelargir.

1448. Rebels escape and seize Umbar.

1540. King Aldamir slain in war with the Harad and Corsairs of Umbar.

1551. Hyarmendacil II defeats the Men of Harad.

1601. Many Periannath migrate from Bree, and are granted land beyond Baranduin by Argeleb II.

c. 1630. They are joined by Stoors coming up from Dunland.

1634. The Corsairs ravage Pelargir and slay King Minardil.

1636. The Great Plague devastates Gondor. Death of King Telemnar and his children. The White Tree dies in Minas Anor. The plague spreads north and west, and many parts of Eriador become desolate. Beyond the Baranduin the Periannath survive, but suffer great loss.

1640. King Tarondor removes the King's House to Minas Anor, and plants a seedling of the White Tree. Osgiliath begins to fall into ruin. Mordor is left unguarded.

1810. King Telumehtar Umbardacil retakes Umbar and drives out the Corsairs.

1851. The attacks of the Wainriders upon Gondor begin.

1856. Gondor loses its eastern territories, and Narmacil II falls in battle.

1899. King Calimehtar defeats the Wainriders on Dagorlad.

1900. Calimehtar builds the White Tower in Minas Anor.

1940. Gondor and Arnor renew communications and form an alliance. Arvedui weds Firiel daughter of Ondoher of Gondor.

1944. Ondoher falls in battle. Eärnil defeats the enemy in South Ithilien. He then wins the Battle of the Camp, and drives Wainriders into the Dead Marshes. Arvedui claims the crown of Gondor.

1945. Eärnil II receives the crown.

1974. End of the North-kingdom. The Witch-king over-runs Arthedain and takes Fornost.

1975. Arvedui drowned in the Bay of Forochel. The palantiri of AnnUminas and Amon Sûl are lost. Eärnur brings a fleet to Lindon. The Witch-king defeated at the Battle of Fornost, and pursued to the Ettenmoors. He vanishes from the North.

1976. Aranarth takes the title of Chieftain of the DUnedain. The heirlooms of Arnor are given into the keeping of Elrond.

1977. Frumgar leads the eotheod into the North.

1979. Bucca of the Marish becomes first Thain of the Shire.

1980. The Witch-king comes to Mordor and there gathers the Nazgûl. A Balrog appears in Moria, and slays Durin VI.

1981. Nain I slain. The Dwarves flee from Moria. Many of the Silvan Elves of Lorien flee south. Amroth and Nimrodel are lost.

1999. Thrain I comes to Erebor and founds a dwarf-kingdom 'under the Mountain'.

2000. The Nazgûl issue from Mordor and besiege Minas Ithil.

2002. Fall of Minas Ithil, afterwards known as Minas Morgul. The palantir is captured.

2043. Eärnur becomes King of Gondor. He is challenged by the Witch-king.

2050. The challenge is renewed. Eärnur rides to Minas Morgul and is lost Mardil becomes the first Ruling Steward.

2060. The power of Dol Guldur grows. The Wise fear that it may be Sauron taking shape again.

2063. Gandalf goes to Dol Guldur. Sauron retreats and hides in the East. The Watchful Peace begins. The Nazgûl remain quiet in Minas Morgul.

2210. Thorin I leaves Erebor, and goes north to the Grey Mountains, where most of the remnants of Durin's Folk are now gathering.

2340. Isumbras I becomes thirteenth Thain, and first of the Took line. The Oldbucks occupy the Buckland.

2460. The Watchful Peace ends. Sauron returns with increased strength to Dol Guldur.

2463. The White Council is formed. About this time Deagol the Stoor finds the One Ring, and is murdered by Smeagol.

2470. About this time Smeagol-Gollum hides in the Misty Mountains.

2475. Attack on Gondor renewed. Osgiliath finally ruined, and its stone-bridge broken.

c. 2480. Orcs begin to make secret strongholds in the Misty Mountains so as to bar all the passes into Eriador. Sauron begins to people Moria with his creatures.

2509. Celebrian, journeying to Lorien, is waylaid in the Redhorn Pass, and receives a poisoned wound.

2510. Celebrian departs over Sea. Orcs and Easterlings overrun Calenardhon. Eorl the Young wins the victory of the Field of Celebrant. The Rohirrim settle in Calenardhon.

2545. Eorl falls in battle in the Wold.

2569. Brego son of Eorl completes the Golden Hall.

2570. Baldor son of Brego enters the Forbidden Door and is lost. About this time Dragons reappear in the far North and begin to afflict the Dwarves.

2589. Dain I slain by a Dragon.

2590. Thror returns to Erebor. Gror his brother goes to the Iron Hills.

c. 2670. Tobold plants 'pipe-weed' in the Southfarthing.

2683. Isengrim II becomes tenth Thain and begins the excavation of Great Smials.

2698. Ecthelion I rebuilds the White Tower in Minas Tirith.

2740. Orcs renew their invasions of Eriador.

2747. Bandobras Took defeats an Orc-band in the Northfarthing.

2758. Rohan attacked from west and east and overrun. Gondor attacked by fleets of the Corsairs. Helm of Rohan takes refuge in Helm's Deep. Wulf seizes Edoras.

2758-9. The Long Winter follows. Great suffering and loss of life in Eriador and Rohan. Gandalf comes to the aid of the Shire-folk.

2759. Death of Helm. Frealaf drives out Wulf, and begins second line of Kings of the Mark. Saruman takes up his abode in Isengard.

2770. Smaug the Dragon descends on Erebor. Dale destroyed. Thror escapes with Thrain II and Thorin II.

2790. Thror slain by an Orc in Moria. The Dwarves gather for a war of vengeance. Birth of Gerontius, later known as the Old Took.

2793. The War of the Dwarves and Orcs begins.

2799. Battle of Nanduhirion before the East-gate of Moria. Dain Ironfoot returns to the Iron Hills. Thrain II and his son Thorin wander westwards. They settle in the South of Ered Luin beyond the Shire (2802).

2800-64. Orcs from the North trouble Rohan. King Walda slain by them (2861).

2841. Thrain II sets out to revisit Erebor, but is pursued by the servants of Sauron.

2845. Thrain the Dwarf is imprisoned in Dol Guldur; the last of the Seven Rings is taken from him.

2850. Gandalf again enters Dol Guldur, and discovers that its master is indeed Sauron, who is gathering all the Rings and seeking for news of the One, and of Isildur's Heir. He finds Thrain and receives the key of Erebor. Thrain dies in Dol Guldur.

2851. The White Council meets. Gandalf urges an attack on Dol Guldur. Saruman overrules him.55 Saruman begins to search near the Gladden Fields.

2852. Belecthor II of Gondor dies. The White Tree dies, and no seedling can be found. The Dead Tree is left standing.

2885. Stirred up by emissaries of Sauron the Haradrim cross the Poros and attack Gondor. The sons of Folcwine of Rohan are slain in the service of Gondor.

2890. Bilbo born in the Shire.

2901. Most of the remaining inhabitants of Ithilien desert it owing to the attacks of Uruks of Mordor. The secret refuge of Henneth Annûn is built.

2907. Birth of Gilraen mother of Aragorn II.

2911. The Fell Winter. The Baranduin and other rivers are frozen. White Wolves invade Eriador from the North.

2912. Great floods devastate Enedwaith and Minhiriath. Tharbad is ruined and deserted.

2920. Death of the Old Took.

2929. Arathorn son of Arador of the DUnedain weds Gilraen.

2930. Arador slain by Trolls. Birth of Denethor II son of Ecthelion II in Minas Tirith.

2931. Aragorn son of Arathorn II born on March 1st.

2933. Arathorn II slain. Gilraen takes Aragorn to Imladris. Elrond receives him as foster-son and gives him the name Estel (Hope); his ancestry is concealed.

2939. Saruman discovers that Sauron's servants are searching the Anduin near Gladden Fields, and that Sauron therefore has learned of Isildur's end. He is alarmed, but says nothing to the Council.

2941. Thorin Oakenshield and Gandalf visit Bilbo in the Shire. Bilbo meets Smeagol-Gollum and finds the Ring. The White Council meets; Saruman agrees to an attack on Dol Guldur, since he now wishes to prevent Sauron from searching the River. Sauron having made his plans abandons Dol Guldur. The Battle of the Five Armies in Dale. Death of Thorin II. Bard of Esgaroth slays Smaug. Dain of the Iron Hills becomes King under the Mountain (Dain II).

2942. Bilbo returns to the Shire with the Ring. Sauron returns in secret to Mordor.

2944. Bard rebuilds Dale and becomes King. Gollum leaves the Mountains and begins his search for the 'thief' of the Ring.

2948. Theoden son of Thengel, King of Rohan, born.

2949. Gandalf and Balin visit Bilbo in the Shire.

2950. Finduilas, daughter of Adrahil of Dol Amroth, born.

2951. Sauron declares himself openly and gathers power in Mordor. He begins the rebuilding of Barad-dûr. Gollum turns towards Mordor. Sauron sends three of the Nazgûl to reoccupy Dol Guldur. Elrond reveals to 'Estel' his true name and ancestry, and delivers to him the shards of Narsil. Arwen, newly returned from Lorien, meets Aragorn in the woods of Imladris. Aragorn goes out into the Wild.

2953. Last meeting of the White Council. They debate the Rings. Saruman feigns that he has discovered that the One Ring has passed down Anduin to the Sea. Saruman withdraws to Isengard, which he takes as his own, and fortifies it. Being jealous and afraid of Gandalf he sets spies to watch all his movements; and notes his interest in the Shire. He soon begins to keep agents in Bree and the Southfarthing.

2954. Mount Doom bursts into flame again. The last inhabitants of Ithilien flee over Anduin.

2956. Aragorn meets Gandalf and their friendship begins.

2957-80. Aragorn undertakes his great journeys and errantries. As Thorongil he serves in disguise both Thengel of Rohan and Ecthelion II of Gondor.

2968. Birth of Frodo.

2976. Denethor weds Finduilas of Dol Amroth.

2977. Bain son of Bard becomes King of Dale.

2978. Birth of Boromir son of Denethor II.

2980. Aragorn enters Lorien and there meets again Arwen Undomiel. Aragorn gives her the ring of Barahir, and they plight their troth upon the hill of Cerin Amroth. About this time Gollum reaches the confines of Mordor and becomes acquainted with Shelob. Theoden becomes King of Rohan.

2983. Faramir son of Denethor born. Birth of Samwise.

2984. Death of Ecthelion II. Denethor II becomes Steward of Gondor.

2988. Finduilas dies young.

2989. Balin leaves Erebor and enters Moria.

2991. eomer eomund's son born in Rohan.

2994. Balin perishes, and the dwarf-colony is destroyed.

2995. eowyn sister of eomer born.

c. 3000. The shadow of Mordor lengthens. Saruman dares to use the palantir of Orthanc, but becomes ensnared by Sauron, who has the Ithil Stone. He becomes a traitor to the Council. His spies report that the Shire is being closely guarded by the Rangers.

3001. Bilbo's farewell feast. Gandalf suspects his ring to be the One Ring. The guard on the Shire is doubled. Gandalf seeks for news of Gollum and calls on the help of Aragorn.

3002. Bilbo becomes a guest of Elrond, and settles in Rivendell.

3004. Gandalf visits Frodo in the Shire, and does so at intervals during the next four years.

3007. Brand son of Bain becomes King in Dale. Death of Gilraen.

3008. In the autumn Gandalf pays his last visit to Frodo.

3009. Gandalf and Aragorn renew their hunt for Gollum at intervals during the next eight years, searching in the vales of Anduin, Mirkwood, and Rhovanion to the confines of Mordor. At some time during these years Gollum himself ventured into Mordor, and was captured by Sauron. Elrond sends for Arwen, and she returns to Imladris; the Mountains and all lands eastward are becoming dangerous.

3017. Gollum is released from Mordor. He is taken by Aragorn in the Dead Marshes, and brought to Thranduil in Mirkwood. Gandalf visits Minas Tirith and reads the scroll of Isildur.

The Great Years



12. Gandalf reaches Hobbiton.


20. Sauron attacks Osgiliath. About the same time Thranduil is attacked, and Gollum escapes.


4. Boromir sets out from Minas Tirith.

10. Gandalf imprisoned in Orthanc.


All trace of Gollum is lost. It is thought that at about this time, being hunted both by the Elves and Sauron's servants, he took refuge in Moria; but when he had at last discovered the way to the West-gate he could not get out


18. Gandalf escapes from Orthanc in the early hours. The Black Riders cross the Fords of Isen.

19. Gandalf comes to Edoras as a beggar, and is refused admittance.

20. Gandalf gains entrance to Edoras. Theoden commands him to go: 'Take any horse, only be gone ere tomorrow is old!'

21. Gandalf meets Shadowfax, but the horse will not allow him to come near. He follows Shadowfax far over the fields.

22. The Black Riders reach Sarn Ford at evening; they drive off the guard of Rangers. Gandalf overtakes Shadowfax.

23. Four Riders enter the Shire before dawn. The others pursue the Rangers eastward, and then return to watch the Greenway. A Black Rider comes to Hobbiton at nightfall. Frodo leaves Bag End. Gandalf having tamed Shadowfax rides from Rohan.

24. Gandalf crosses the Isen.

26. The Old Forest. Frodo comes to Bombadil.

27. Gandalf crosses Greyflood. Second night with Bombadil.

28. The Hobbits captured by a Barrow-wight. Gandalf reaches Sarn Ford.

29. Frodo reaches Bree at night. Gandalf visits the Gaffer.

30. Crickhollow and the Inn at Bree are raided in the early hours. Frodo leaves Bree. Gandalf comes to Crickhollow, and reaches Bree at night


1. Gandalf leaves Bree.

3. He is attacked at night on Weathertop.

6. The camp under Weathertop attacked at night Frodo wounded.

9. Glorfindel leaves Rivendell.

11. He drives the Riders off the Bridge of Mitheithel.

13. Frodo crosses the Bridge.

18. Glorfindel finds Frodo at dusk. Gandalf reaches Rivendell.

20. Escape across the Ford of Bruinen.

24. Frodo recovers and wakes. Boromir arrives in Rivendell at night

25. Council of Elrond.


25. The Company of the Ring leaves Rivendell at dusk.



8. The Company reach Hollin.

11, 12. Snow on Caradhras.

13. Attack by Wolves in the early hours. The Company reaches the West-gate of Moria at nightfall. Gollum begins to trail the Ring-bearer.

14. Night in Hall Twenty-one.

15. The Bridge of Khazad-dûm, and fall of Gandalf. The Company reaches Nimrodel late at night.

17. The Company comes to Caras Galadhon at evening.

23. Gandalf pursues the Balrog to the peak of Zirak-zigil.

25. He casts down the Balrog, and passes away. His body lies on the peak.


14. The Mirror of Galadriel. Gandalf returns to life, and lies in a trance.

16. Farewell to Lorien. Gollum in hiding on the west bank observes the departure.

17. Gwaihir bears Gandalf to Lorien.

23. The boats are attacked at night near Sam Gebir.

25. The Company pass the Argonath and camp at Parth Galen. First Battle of the Fords of Isen; Theodred son of Theoden slain.

26. Breaking of the Fellowship. Death of Boromir; his horn is heard in Minas Tirith. Meriadoc and Peregrin captured. Frodo and Samwise enter the eastern Emyn Muil. Aragorn sets out in pursuit of the Orcs at evening. eomer hears of the descent of the Orc-band from the Emyn Muil.

27. Aragorn reaches the west-cliff at sunrise. eomer against Theoden's orders sets out from Eastfold about midnight to pursue the Orcs.

28. eomer overtakes the Orcs just outside Fangorn Forest.

29. Meriadoc and Pippin escape and meet Treebeard. The Rohirrim attack at sunrise and destroy the Orcs. Frodo descends from the Emyn Muil and meets Gollum. Faramir sees the funeral boat of Boromir.

30. Entmoot begins. eomer returning to Edoras meets Aragorn.


1. Frodo begins the passage of the Dead Marshes at dawn. Entmoot continues. Aragorn meets Gandalf the White. They set out for Edoras. Faramir leaves Minas Tirith on an errand to Ithilien.

2. Frodo comes to the end of the Marshes. Gandalf comes to Edoras and heals Theoden. The Rohirrim ride west against Saruman. Second Battle of Fords of Isen. Erkenbrand defeated. Entmoot ends in after-noon. The Ents march on Isengard and reach it at night.

3. Theoden retreats to Helm's Deep. Battle of the Horn-burg begins. Ents complete the destruction of Isengard.

4. Theoden and Gandalf set out from Helm's Deep for Isengard. Frodo reaches the slag-mounds on the edge of the Desolation of the Morannon.

5. Theoden reaches Isengard at noon. Parley with Saruman in Orthanc. Winged Nazgûl passes over the camp at Dol Baran. Gandalf sets out with Peregrin for Minas Tirith. Frodo hides in sight of the Morannon, and leaves at dusk.

6. Aragorn overtaken by the DUnedain in the early hours. Theoden sets out from the Hornburg for Harrowdale. Aragorn sets out later.

7. Frodo taken by Faramir to Henneth Annûn. Aragorn comes to Dunharrow at nightfall.

8. Aragorn takes the 'Paths of the Dead' at daybreak; he reaches Erech at midnight. Frodo leaves Henneth Annûn.

9. Gandalf reaches Minas Tirith. Faramir leaves Henneth Annûn. Aragorn sets out from Erech and comes to Calembel. At dusk Frodo reaches the Morgul-road. Theoden comes to Dunharrow. Darkness begins to flow out of Mordor.

10. The Dawnless Day. The Muster of Rohan: the Rohirrim ride from Harrowdale. Faramir rescued by Gandalf outside the gates of the City. Aragorn crosses Ringlo. An army from the Morannon takes Cair Andros and passes into Anorien. Frodo passes the Cross-roads, and sees the Morgul-host set forth.

11. Gollum visits Shelob, but seeing Frodo asleep nearly repents. Denethor sends Faramir to Osgiliath. Aragorn reaches Linhir and crosses into Lebennin. Eastern Rohan is invaded from the north. First assault on Lorien.

12. Gollum leads Frodo into Shelob's lair. Faramir retreats to the Causeway Forts. Theoden camps under Minrimmon. Aragorn drives the enemy towards Pelargir. The Ents defeat the invaders of Rohan.

13. Frodo captured by the Orcs of Cirith Ungol. The Pelennor is over-run. Faramir is wounded. Aragorn reaches Pelargir and captures the fleet. Theoden in DrUadan Forest.

14. Samwise finds Frodo in the Tower. Minas Tirith is besieged. The Rohirrim led by the Wild Men come to the Grey Wood.

15. In the early hours the Witch-king breaks the Gates of the City. Denethor burns himself on a pyre. The horns of the Rohirrim are heard at cockcrow. Battle of the Pelennor. Theoden is slain. Aragorn raises the standard of Arwen. Frodo and Samwise escape and begin their journey north along the Morgai. Battle under the trees in Mirkwood; Thranduil repels the forces of Dol Guldur. Second assault on Lorien.

16. Debate of the commanders. Frodo from the Morgai looks out over the camp to Mount Doom.

17. Battle of Dale. King Brand and King Dain Ironfoot fall. Many Dwarves and Men take refuge in Erebor and are besieged. Shagrat brings Frodo's cloak, mail-shirt, and sword to Barad-dûr.

18. The Host of the West marches from Minas Tirith. Frodo comes in sight of the Isenmouthe; he is over-taken by Orcs on the road from Durthang to Udûn.

19. The Host comes to Morgul-vale. Frodo and Samwise escape and begin their journey along the road to the Barad-dûr.

22. The dreadful nightfall. Frodo and Samwise leave the road and turn south to Mount Doom. Third assault on Lorien.

23. The Host passes out of Ithilien. Aragorn dismisses the faint-hearted. Frodo and Samwise cast away their arms and gear.

24. Frodo and Samwise make their last journey to the feet of Mount Doom. The Host camps in the Desolation of the Morannon.

25. The Host is surrounded on the Slag-hills. Frodo and Samwise reach the Sammath Naur. Gollum seizes the Ring and falls in the Cracks of Doom. Downfall of Barad-dûr and passing of Sauron.

After the fall of the Dark Tower and the passing of Sauron the Shadow was lifted from the hearts of all who opposed him, but fear and despair fell upon his servants and allies. Three times Lorien had been assailed from Dol Guldur, but besides the valour of the elven people of that land, the power that dwelt there was too great for any to overcome, unless Sauron had come there himself. Though grievous harm was done to the fair woods on the borders, the assaults were driven back; and when the Shadow passed, Celeborn came forth and led the host of Lorien over Anduin in many boats. They took Dol Guldur, and Galadriel threw down its walls and laid bare its pits, and the forest was cleansed.

In the North also there had been war and evil. The realm of Thranduil was invaded, and there was long battle under the trees and great ruin of fire; but in the end Thranduil had the victory. And on the day of the New Year of the Elves, Celeborn and Thranduil met in the midst of the forest; and they renamed Mirkwood Eryn Lasgalen, The Wood of Greenleaves. Thranduil took all the northern region as far as the mountains that rise in the forest for his realm; and Celeborn took the southern wood below the Narrows, and named it East Lorien; all the wide forest between was given to the Beornings and the Woodmen. But after the passing of Galadriel in a few years Celeborn grew weary of his realm and went to Imladris to dwell with the sons of Elrond. In the Greenwood the Silvan Elves remained untroubled, but in Lorien there lingered sadly only a few of its former people, and there was no longer light or song in Caras Galadhon.

At the same time as the great armies besieged Minas Tirith a host of the allies of Sauron that had long threatened the borders of King Brand crossed the River Carnen, and Brand was driven back to Dale. There he had the aid of the Dwarves of Erebor; and there was a great battle at the Mountain's feet It lasted three days, but in the end both King Brand and King Dain Ironfoot were slain, and the Easterlings had the victory. But they could not take the Gate, and many, both Dwarves and Men, took refuge in Erebor, and there withstood a siege.

When news came of the great victories in the South, then Sauron's northern army was filled with dismay; and the besieged came forth and routed them, and the remnant fled into the East and troubled Dale no more. Then Bard II, Brand's son, became King in Dale, and Thorin III Stonehelm, Dain's son, became King under the Mountain. They sent their ambassadors to the crowning of King Elessar; and their realms remained ever after, as long as they lasted, in friendship with Gondor; and they were under the crown and protection of the King of the West.

The chief days from the fall of the Barad-dûr to the end of the Third Age56


S.R. 1419.

March 27. Bard II and Thorin III Stonehelm drive the enemy from Dale. 28 Celeborn crosses Anduin; destruction of Dol Guldur begun.

April 6. Meeting of Celeborn and Thranduil. 8 The Ring-bearers are honoured on the Field of Cormallen.

May 1. Crowning of King Elessar; Elrond and Arwen set out from Rivendell. 8 eomer and eowyn depart for Rohan with the sons of Elrond. 20 Elrond and Arwen come to Lorien. 27 The escort of Arwen leaves Lorien.

June 14. The sons of Elrond meet the escort and bring Arwen to Edoras. 16 They set out for Gondor. 25 King Elessar finds the sapling of the WhiteTree.

1 Lithe. Arwen comes to the City.

Mid-year's Day. Wedding of Elessar and Arwen.

July 18. eomer returns to Minas Tirith. 19 The funeral escort of King Theoden sets out.

August 7. The escort comes to Edoras. 10 Funeral of King Theoden. 14 The guests take leave of King eomer. 18 They come to Helm's Deep. 22 They come to Isengard; they take leave of the King of the West at sunset. 28 They overtake Saruman; Saruman turns towards the Shire.

September 6. They halt in sight of the Mountains of Moria. 13 Celeborn and Galadriel depart, the others set out for Rivendell. 21 They return to Rivendell. 22 The hundred and twenty-ninth birthday of Bilbo. Saruman comes to the Shire.

October 5. Gandalf and the Hobbits leave Rivendell. 6 They cross the Ford of Bruinen; Frodo feels the first return of pain. 28 They reach Bree at nightfall. 30 They leave Bree. The Travellers' come to the Brandywine Bridge at dark.

November 1. They are arrested at Frogmorton. 2 They come to Bywater and rouse the Shire-folk. 3 Battle of Bywater, and Passing of Saruman. End of the War of the Ring.


S.R. 1420: The Great Year of Plenty

March 13. Frodo is taken ill (on the anniversary of his poisoning by Shelob).

April 6. The mallorn flowers in the Party Field.

May 1. Samwise marries Rose.

Mid-year's Day. Frodo resigns office of mayor, and Will Whitfoot is restored.

September 22. Bilbo's hundred and thirtieth birthday.

October 6. Frodo is again ill.


S.R. 1421 The Last of the Third Age

March 13. Frodo is again ill 25 Birth of Elanor the Fair,57 daughter of Samwise. On this day the Fourth Age began in the reckoning of Gondor.

September 21. Frodo and Samwise set out from Hobbiton. 22 They meet the Last Riding of the Keepers of the Rings in Woody End. 29 They come to the Grey Havens. Frodo and Bilbo depart over Sea with the Three Keepers. The end of the Third Age.

October 6. Samwise returns to Bag End.

Later events concerning

the members of the Fellowship of the Ring


1422. With the beginning of this year the Fourth Age began in the count of years in the Shire; but the numbers of the years of Shire Reckoning were continued.

1427. Will Whitfoot resigns. Samwise is elected Mayor of the Shire. Peregrin Took marries Diamond of Long Cleeve. King Elessar issues an edict that Men are not to enter the Shire, and he makes it a Free Land under the protection of the Northern Sceptre.

1430. Faramir, son of Peregrin, born.

1431. Goldilocks, daughter of Samwise, born.

1432. Meriadoc, called the Magnificent, becomes Master of Buckland. Great gifts are sent to him by King eomer and the Lady eowyn of Ithilien.

1434. Peregrin becomes the Took and Thain. King Elessar makes the Thain, the Master, and the Mayor Counsellors of the North-kingdom. Master Samwise is elected Mayor for the second time.

1436. King Elessar rides north, and dwells for a while by Lake Evendim. He comes to the Brandywine Bridge, and there greets his friends. He gives the Star of the DUnedain to Master Samwise, and Elanor is made a maid of honour to Queen Arwen.

1441. Master Samwise becomes Mayor for the third time.

1442. Master Samwise and his wife and Elanor ride to Gondor and stay there for a year. Master Tolman Cotton acts as deputy Mayor.

1448. Master Samwise becomes Mayor for the fourth time.

1451. Elanor the Fair marries Fastred of Greenholm on the Far Downs.

1452. The Westmarch, from the Far Downs to the Tower Hills (Emyn Beraid),58 is added to the Shire by the gift of the King. Many hobbits remove to it.

1454. Elfstan Fairbairn, son of Fastred and Elanor, is born.

1455. Master Samwise becomes Mayor for the fifth time. At his request the Thain makes Fastred Warden of Westmarch. Fastred and Elanor make their dwelling at Undertowers on the Tower Hills, where their descendants, the Fairbairns of the Towers, dwelt for many generations.

1463. Faramir Took marries Goldilocks, daughter of Samwise.

1469. Master Samwise becomes Mayor for the seventh and last time, being in 1476, at the end of his office, ninety-six years old.

1482. Death of Mistress Rose, wife of Master Samwise, on Mid-year's Day. On September 22 Master Sam-wise rides out from Bag End. He comes to the Tower Hills, and is last seen by Elanor, to whom he gives the Red Book afterwards kept by the Fairbairns. Among them the tradition is handed down from Elanor that Samwise passed the Towers, and went to the Grey Havens, and passed over Sea, last of the Ring-bearers.

1484. In the spring of the year a message came from Rohan to Buckland that King eomer wished to see Master Holdwine once again. Meriadoc was then old (102) but still hale. He took counsel with his friend the Thain, and soon after they handed over their goods and offices to their sons and rode away over the Sam Ford, and they were not seen again in the Shire. It was heard after that Master Meriadoc came to Edoras and was with King eomer before he died in that autumn. Then he and Thain Peregrin went to Gondor and passed what short years were left to them in that realm, until they died and were laid in Rath Dinen among the great of Gondor.

1541. In this year59 on March 1st came at last the Passing of King Elessar. It is said that the beds of Meriadoc and Peregrin were set beside the bed of the great king. Then Legolas built a grey ship in Ithilien, and sailed down Anduin and so over Sea; and with him, it is said, went Gimli the Dwarf. And when that ship passed an end was come in the Middle-earth of the Fellowship of the Ring.